Leveraging the extensive infrastructure and experienced research teams from 26 participating civilian universities and 4 military service academies, the CARE Consortium has published more than 90 scientific papers that are critical to advancing the science behind concussion and head impact exposure effects on brain health.

CARE consortium members will continue to analyze data, providing a deeper breadth of understanding to the current science. Those outside the consortium can access de-identified CARE data via FITBIR, the Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research database. For any questions about FITBIR data, please contact FITBIR at If you have already worked with FITBIR to obtain a CARE dataset and have specific questions about the dataset itself, please contact

Recent Care Consortium Publications

Published Date Title Author
January 26, 2021 Differences in sport- related concussion for female and male athletes in comparable collegiate sports: a study from the NCAA- DoD Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. Master
October 1, 2019 Cerebral blood flow in acute concussion: ASL findings from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium Wang
October 9, 2018 Health-Related Quality of Life Following Concussion in Collegiate Student-Athletes With and Without Concussion History Weber
October 12, 2018 Impact of demographic factors and reading skill on King-Devick baseline performance time Chrisman
January 1, 2019 Influence of Self-Reported Fatigue and Sex on Concussion Baseline Assessment Scores Combs
April 1, 2019 Impact of contemporary approaches to concussion management on return to play and risk of repetitive concussion in collegiate football players: Comparative analysis from the NCAA Concussion Study McCrea
October 22, 2018 Comparison of Head Impact Exposure Between Concussed Football Athletes and Matched Controls: Evidence for a Possible Second Mechanism of Sport-Related Concussion Stemper
March 11, 2020 Data-driven Stochastic Optimization Approaches to Determine Decision Boundaries for Medical Diagnosis Gabriel-Garcia
April 21, 2020 Association of Acute Vestibular/ocular screening scores to prolonged recovery in collegiate athletes following sport-related concussion Whitney
May 22, 2019 Prevalence of Potentially Clinically Significant Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Athletes with and without Sport-Related Concussion Klein
May 25, 2017 The Association Between Psychological Distress and Concussion History in College Athletes Combs
January 14, 2019 A cohort study to identify and evaluate concussion risk factors across multiple injury settings: findings from the CARE Consortium Van Pelt
May 6, 2019 A Data-driven Approach to Unlikely, Possible, Probable, and Definite Acute Concussion Assessment" Garcia
June 18, 2020 Concussion Recovery Trajectories Among Tactical Athletes Van Pelt
February 11, 2019 Estimated Age of First Exposure to American Football and Neurocognitive Performance Amongst NCAA Male Student‑Athletes: A Cohort Study Caccese
June 19, 2019 Factors Affecting Head Impact Exposure in College Football Practices: A Multi-Institutional Study Campolettano
October 10, 2019 The influence of self-reported tobacco use on baseline concussion assessments Roach
September 24, 2019 Academic Aptitude Mediates the Relationship between SES and Race in Predicting Cognitive Test Scores in College Athletes Houck
October 1, 2019 Accounting for variance in concussion tolerance between individuals: comparing head accelerations between concussed and physically matched control subjects Rowson
November 19, 2018 Resting‐state functional connectivity after concussion is associated with clinical recovery Kaushal
May 22, 2020 The Influence of Socioeconomic Status and Academic Standing on Concussion Reporting Intentions and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes Lempke
November 1, 2018 Longitudinal White-Matter Abnormalities in Sports-Related Concussion: A Diffusion MRI study of the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium Mustafi
December 1, 2019 Reliability of the King-Devick Test in Intercollegiate Student-Athletes: An NCAA/DoD Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Report Breedlove
August 6, 2019 The Effect of Two-a-day Practices on Repetitive Head Impact Exposure During the Preseason and Regular Season in NCAA Division I FBS College Football: A Study from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium Stemper
February 12, 2020 Impact of Diagnosed Sleep Disorder on Concussion Baseline Symptom, Cognitive and Balance Assessments in Collegiate Athletes McAllister-Detrick
January 15, 2020 Estimated Age of First Exposure to Contact Sports is Not Associated with Greater Symptoms or Worse Cognitive Functioning in U.S. Service Academy Athletes Caccese
July 26, 2019 Acute Sport Concussion Assessment Optimization: A Prospective Assessment from the CARE Consortium Broglio
June 23, 2020 Clinical reaction time determinants in healthy collegiate athletes Caccese
July 5, 2019 Multivariate base rates of low scores and reliable decline on ImPACT in healthy collegiate athletes using CARE Consortium norms Houck
November 1, 2020 Optimizing Components of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool for Acute Concussion Assessment Garcia
July 28, 2020 Cumulative Effects of Prior Concussion and Primary Sport Participation on Brain Morphometry in Collegiate Athletes: A Study From the NCAA–DoD CARE Consortium Brett
January 24, 2020 Acute biomarker levels predict return to play following sport-related concussion in collegiate athletes: A prospective study from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium McCrea
June 30, 2020 Factors Associated with Delayed Concussion Reporting in United States Service Academy Cadets Bookbinder
December 11, 2019 Resting-state fMRI metrics in acute sport-related concussion and their association with clinical recovery: A study from the NCAA-DOD CARE Consortium Meier
August 1, 2020 A Normative Reference vs. Baseline Testing Compromise for ImPACT: the CARE Consortium Multiple variable Prediction (CARE-MVP) Norms Asken
December 17, 2020 The Effects of On-Field Heat Index and Altitude on Concussion Assessments and Recovery Among NCAA Athletes Lempke
June 1, 2020 No Clinical Predictors of Post-Concussion Subsequent Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Injury in Collegiate Athletes Buckley
August 24, 2021 The natural history of sport-related concussion in collegiate athletes: Findings from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium Broglio
June 16, 2020 Medical Disqualification Following Concussion in Collegiate Student-Athletes: Findings from the CARE Consortium Schmidt
January 11, 2021 Factors Associated with Symptom Reporting in Collegiate Student Athletes without Concussion: Findings from the CARE Consortium Caccese
March 1, 2021 Concussion Risk Prediction in Collegiate Athletes and Military Cadets: A Machine Learning Approach Using Baseline Data from the CARE Consortium Study Castellanos
June 16, 2020 Test-Retest Reliability of Concussion Baseline Assessments in United States Service Academy Cadets: A Report from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium Houston
August 18, 2020 Bifactor model of Sport Concussion Assessment Tool symptom checklist: Replication and invariance across time in the CARE Consortium sample Brett
December 14, 2020 Sensitivity and Specificity of Computer-Based Neurocognitive Assessments in Sport-Related Concussion: Findings from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium Czerniak
September 20, 2021 Predictive Accuracy of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 and Vestibular/Ocular-Motor Screening, Individually and In Combination: A National Collegiate Athletic Association-Department of Defense Concussion Assessment, Research and Education Consortium Analysis Ferris
November 11, 2020 Air travel may not affect symptom recovery after concussion in NCAA Athletes and Military Cadets: A study from the CARE Consortium Sharma
February 22, 2021 Blood biomarker profile after acute concussion in combat sports and training in military cadets: A prospective study from the NCAA-DOD CARE consortium Giza
January 21, 2020 The association between persistent white-matter abnormalities and risk of repeat injury after sport-related concussion Brett
August 27, 2020 Plasma Biomarker Concentrations Associated With Return to Sport Following Sport-Related Concussion in Collegiate Athletes—A Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium Study Pattinson
November 20, 2020 The relationship between sport-related concussion and sensation-seeking Liebel
August 17, 2021 Association between sports participation history and age of first exposure to high-risk sports with concussion history Caccese
December 22, 2020 Interpreting clinical reaction time change and recovery after concussion: a baseline versus normative-based cutoff score comparison Caccese
September 24, 2020 Progress and Future Directions of the NCAA-DoD Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium and Mind Matters Challenge at the U.S. Service Academies Houston
November 24, 2019 Estimated Age of First Exposure to American Football and Outcome from Concussion Caccese
March 1, 2021 Concussion and head impact exposure in college football players: Where are opportunities for prevention? A Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium Study McCrea
November 2, 2020 Do Head Injury Biomechanics Predict Concussion Clinical Recovery in College American Football Players? Mihalik
January 14, 2021 Detailed Description of Division I Ice Hockey Concussions: Findings form the NCAA and Department of Defense CARE Consortium Van Pelt
September 11, 2020 Prospective study of the association between sport-related concussion and brain morphometry (3T-MRI) in collegiate athletes: study from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium Bobholz
April 16, 2020 Investigating the Range of Symptom Endorsement at Initiation of a Graduated Return-to-Play Protocol After Concussion and Duration of the Protocol Brett
October 28, 2020 Concussion Risk Between Individual Football Players: Survival Analysis of Recurrent Events and Non-events Rowson
April 1, 2021 Correction to: The Effects of On-Field Heat Index and Altitude on Concussion Assessments and Recovery Among NCAA Athletes Lempke
September 20, 2021 Minimum Detectable Change and False Positive Rates of the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) Tool: An NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium Analysis Eagle
June 15, 2021 Optimizing Order of Administration for Concussion Baseline Assessment Among NCAA Student-Athletes Lempke
October 27, 2020 High Energy Side and Rear American Football Head Impacts Cause Obvious Performance Decrement on Video Bartsch
December 30, 2021 "Investigation of aerobic and muscular fitness and concussion among service academy cadets at the United States Air Force Academy: Results from the CARE Consortium" Van Pelt
January 10, 2022 Association Between Symptom Burden at Initiation of a Graduated Return to Play Protocol and Time to Return to Unrestricted Activity After Concussion in Service Academy Cadets Aderman
February 15, 2021 Association between Sensation-Seeking Behaviors and Concussion-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceived Norms among Collegiate Student-Athletes Callahan
February 1, 2022 Concussion Characteristics and Post-Injury Outcomes Between College Students and Intercollegiate Athletes Anderson
October 13, 2021 Mechanisms of Injury for Concussions in Collegiate Soccer: An NCAA/DoD CARE Consortium Study Kaminski
May 12, 2021 Discriminative Validity of Vestibular Ocular Motor Screening in Identifying Concussion Among Collegiate Athletes Kontos